Psathyrella bipellis (Quél.) A. H. Sm. 1946
in J. Elisha Mitchell scient. Soc. 62: 187

MycoBank: 438921
Oldest description: Agaricus odoratus Peck 1872 in Ann. Rep. N. Y. St. Mus. 24: 70f. (illeg., not available as basionym, homonym of Agaricus odoratus Vill. 1779)
Pileus thin, fragile, ovate-convex, at length expanded, smooth, hygrophanous, dark reddish brown or chestnut colored and striatulate on the margin when moist, dirty white or clay colored with a pinkish tinge, subatomaceous and radiately wrinkled when dry; lamellae close, broad, attached, with a slight spurious decurrent tooth, dingy flesh color, then rosy brown, finally black with a whitish edge; stem pallid, equal, hollow, slightly enlarged at the base, slightly mealy and striate at the top, subfibrillose when young, with a white mycelium at the base; spores elliptical cymbiform, 1/1700 long.
Plant 2'-3' high, pileus 1'-2' broad, stem 1"-2" thick. About manure heaps. West Albany. May.
It is gregarious or subcaespitose, and has a strong odor resembling that of the "poison elder," Sambucus pubens. The pileus is sometimes split on the margin and occasionally cracked on the surface."
Rejected by: Psathyra bipellis Quél. 1884 in Compte Rendu de la 12' Session, Association Française pour L'Avancement des Sciences, Rouen 1883: 501
"Stipe tubuleux, grêle, fragile, pulvérulent au sommet, villeux, puis satiné, blanc violeté. Chapeau campanulé, puis étalé (0m,02-3), hygrophane, bai pourpre, puis incarnat rosé et micacé ; marge couverte de flocons soyeux et blancs, puis glabre et striée. Lamelles asnées, blanc rosé, puis violet noir avec un fin liséré blanc. Spore ellipsoide (0mm,015), violette. (Pl. VI, fig. 9.)
Été. - Sur les brindilles et les vieilles suches des forêts ombragées. Jura. Affine à spadicea et subatrata."

Important synonyms:
Drosophila bipellis (Quél.) Quél. 1886 in Enchir. Fung.: 117
Pilosace bipellis (Quél.) Kuntze 1893 in Revis. gen. pl. 3: 504
Psathyrella odorata (Peck) Sacc. 1887 in Syll. Fung. 5: 1136 (comb. illeg.)
Gymnochilus roseolus F. Clem. 1896 in Bot. Survey Nebraska 4: 23
Pilosace roseolus Kuntze 1893 in Revis. gen. pl. 3: 503
Psathyra roseola (F. Clem.) Sacc. 1899 in Syll. Fung. 14: 154f.
Psathyrella macrocystidiata Arnolds 2003 in Fungi Non Delineati XXVI: 14
Psathyra barlae Bres. 1887 in Fung. Trid. 1: 84, pl. 91
Psathyrella barlae (Bres.) A. H. Sm. 1941 in Contr. Univ. Mich. Herb. 5: 39
Psathyrella barlae f. barlae A. H. Sm. 1941 in Contr. Univ. Mich. Herb. 5: 39
Psathyrella barlae f. minor A. H. Sm. 1972 in Mem. N. Y. bot. Gdn. 24: 104
Psathyrella brooksi A. H. Sm. 1972 in Mem. N. Y. bot. Gdn. 24: 191
Psathyra corrugis ss. Ricken 1913 in Blätterpilze: 257 + Tafel 67 fig. 3
Agaricus atrorufus ss. Cooke 1884 in Handb. Brit. Fungi, 2. ed.: 211
Agaricus atrorufus ss. Cooke 1885 in Ill. Brit. Fung. 4, pl. 571

Select. decript.: Arnolds (2003): 14ff. (as Psathyrella macrocystidiata), Breitenbach & Kränzlin (1995): 262, Consiglio (2000): 33f., Enderle (1985): 30f., Kits v. Wav. (1977a): 210ff., (1985): 107ff., Kieglsteiner & Gminder (2010): 605f., Ludwig (2007): 655ff., Muñoz & Sánchez (2018): 42ff., Örstadius (2007): 75ff. (as P. odorata, Örstadius & Knudsen (2008): 590f. (as P. odorata), Plas (1996): 11ff., Ruggero (2015): 40ff., Smith (1941): 39f. (as P. Barlae), (1972): 103f. (as P. barlae f. barlae), 104f. (as P. barlae f. minor), 191f. (as P. brooksi)
Select. icons: Arnolds (2003): 38 (as Psathyrella macrocystidiata), Breitenbach & Kränzlin (1995): 263, Consiglio (2000): 34, Enderle (1985): after page 32, Enderle (2004): 402, Enderle & Zuccherelli (1993): 139, Iglesias & al. (2015): 187, Krieglsteiner & Gminder (2010): 606., Ludwig (2007a): 197, Muñoz & Sánchez (2018): 43 Fig. A, 44 Fig. A + B, Plas (1996): Cover, Ruggero (2015): 42

Pileus 10-60 mm broad, at first hemispherical to convex, later flattened with a umbo, striated or rugolose, dark wine-red to reddish brown, hygrophanous, fading to ochraceous. Veil sparse and volatile.
Lamellae moderately close, adnate, at first brownish with a pinkish hue, old greyish to blackish brown, also with pinkish or purplish tone, hygrophanous and with the same colour as the cap, edge white.
Stipe 20-120 x 2-6 mm, whitish to pale yellowish brownish or with pinkish to purplish hue, strongly longitudinal fibrillose.
Spore print black.
Spores (10-) 11-15 (-18,5) x 6,2-9 (-10,5) µm, av. 13-15 x 7,2-7,6 µm, av. Q=1,50-2,10, ovoid, ellipsoid, germ pore distinct and often slightly to strongly eccentrical. In water red brown, in ammonia dark brown, in KOH dark purplish black, nearly opaque.
Basidia 16-40 x 11-16 µm, mostly 4-spored, sometimes 2-spored.
Cheilocystidia 35-80 x 8-24 µm, fresh usually with crystalline or amorphous yellow-brown, sometimes pale greenish inclusions, walls often slightly thickened and yellowish, numerous and often crowded. Intermixed by moderatley numerous to numerous sphaeropedunculate and clavate marginal cells, 10-40 x 11-24,5 µm.
Pleurocystidia 52,5-100 x 15-24 µm, polymorphic, fresh usually with crystalline or amorphous yellow-brown, sometimes pale greenish inclusions, walls often slightly thickened and yellowish, numerous to very numerous.
Clamps present.
Microcharacters AM1586:
Spores 13-16 x 7-8 µm, av. 13,3-14,7 x 7,5-7,6 µm, av. Q=1,80-1,93, germ pore central. In water and ammonia red brown, in KOH dark red brown, nearly opaque.
Basidia 22-35 x 12-15 µm, mostly 4-spored.
Cheilocystidia 33-64 x 11-20,5 µm, often fusiform, neck mostly with yellowish brown inclusions, numerous. Intermixed by some clavate marginal cells, 11-22 x 8-12 µm.
Pleurocystidia 50-75 x 12-20 µm, mostly fusiform, neck mostly with yellowish brown inclusions, numerous.
Clamps present.
The collections AM1595 (top) and AM1586 (below) were sequenced and compared, both are identical.



Habitat: Dead wood (chips, tree stumps), in forests, parkland, in partially shaded areas.
Distribution: Albania (Invancevic & Karadelev 2013), Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece (Zervakis & al. 2002), Hungary, Italy (Sardinia), Luxembourg (Tholl 1996), Netherlands, Portugal (Santos-Silva & al. 2011), Slovac Republic, Spain, Sweden, Turkey (Kaya 2010), USA
The differences are considerable particularly the shape of the cystidia and the germ pore.
Coll. exam.:
(D) Hessen: Gießen, 15.05.13, leg. W. Schößler (AM1595); - Mecklenburg-Vorpommern: Greifswald, 13.10.18 leg. R. Lüdecke (AM1962); - (E) Madrid, 27.11.12, leg. B. Rodríguez & A. Díaz (AM1586); - (B) Kampenhout, 30.12.2015, leg. Daniel Deschuyteneer (AM1864).
Historical documents:
Peck (1872, Orig.diag.):

Cooke (1884):

Quélet (1886):

Bresadola (1887):

Saccardo (1887):

Quélet (1888):

Saccardo (1887):

Clements (1896):

Saccardo (1899):

Morgan (1907):

Ricken (1913):

Bresadola (1931):

back Counter